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Freight Knowledge Encyclopedia

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Freight Knowledge Encyclopedia

Release date:2016-07-27 08:43 Source: Click:

First, freight knowledge (shipping)

International container transport

As the container is a new modern mode of transport, it is different from the traditional transport of goods is not the same, the practice is not the same, the current international container transport is not yet an effective and generally accepted uniform approach. However, in dealing with the specific business of the container, countries generally similar approach, according to the current international container business on the usual practice, as follows:

1. Container packing method

According to the number of containers and the number of boxes can be divided into Zhengxiang and Pinxiang two.

(1) full box (Full Container Load, FCL). Refers to the goods side of the goods to fill the full box after the box to the container shipping units. This is usually done when the owner has sufficient supply to load one or several boxes, except that some of the large shippers have their own containers, usually renting certain containers to the carrier or container leasing company. Empty containers shipped to the factory or warehouse, under the supervision of the customs officers, the owner of the goods into the box, locked, aluminum seal after the carrier and obtain the receipt, and finally with a receipt for bill of lading or waybill.

(2) Pin (Less Than Container Load, LCL). Refers to the carrier (or agent) to accept the owner of the number of consignments less than the small box of freight, according to the nature of goods and destination classification. To the same destination to the goods, concentrated to a certain number of assembled into the box. As a box of goods with different cargo owner assembled together, so called Pinxiang. This is the case when the shipper consignment is insufficient to fill the full box. The classification, collation, concentration, packing (unpacking), delivery and other work of the LCL are carried out at the carrier terminal or the inland container transfer station.

2. Container cargo transfer

As mentioned above, the container freight is divided into Zhengxiang and Pinxiang two, so the way of handover is also different, look at the current international practice, generally have the following four categories:

(1) FCL / FCL (FCL / FCL)

The owner in the factory or warehouse to fill the full of goods after the Zhengxiang to the carrier, the consignee in the destination to the same box to accept the goods, in other words, the carrier to FCL as the unit responsible for the transfer. Cargo packing and unpacking are carried by the cargo side.

(2) Pinxiang pay, unpacking (LCL / LCL)

The shipper will be less than the fares of small ticket consignments in the container freight station or inland transit station to the carrier, by the carrier responsible for Pinxiang and packing (Stuffing, Vanning) to the destination cargo terminal or inland transit station, Unlocked by the carrier (Unstuffing, Devantting), after unpacking, the consignee voucher to accept the goods. Cargo packing and unpacking are carried by the carrier.

(3) FCL / LCL (FCL / LCL)

The owner in the factory or warehouse to fill the full box after the Zhengxiang to the carrier, in the destination of the container freight station or inland transit station by the carrier is responsible for devanning, the consignee voucher receipt.

(4) Pinxiang cross, Zhengxiang then (LCL / FCL)

The shipper will be less than the fares of small ticket consignments in the container freight station or inland transit station to the carrier. By the carrier classification adjustment, the same consignee of the goods assembled in the Zhengxiang, shipped to the destination, the carrier to Zhengxiang Jia, the consignee to Zhengxiang then.

The above-mentioned various handover methods, to Zhengxiang Jia, Zhengxiang then the best, but also the best play the advantages of the container.

3. Container goods transfer location

The transfer of container goods, according to the terms of trade required by the transfer of different locations are generally divided into:

(1) Door to Door: From the consignor's factory or warehouse to the consignee's factory or warehouse;

(2) Door to CY: container yard from the consignor's factory or warehouse to the destination or unloading port;

(3) Door to CFS: Container terminal from the shipper's factory or warehouse to the destination or unloading port;

(4) to the door (CY to Door): from the originating or container port container yard to the consignee factory or warehouse;

(5) Field to the scene (CY to CY): from the yard to the port of destination or port of loading or unloading port of the container yard;

(6) Field arrival (CY to CFS): From the container yard at the place of departure or the port of loading to the container terminal of the destination or unloading port.

(7) to the door (CFS to DOor): from the originating or container port of the container freight station to the consignee factory or warehouse;

(8) Station arrival (CFS to CY): Container yard from the port of loading or port of loading to the container yard at the destination or unloading port;

(9) Station to station (CFS to CFS): from the originating or container port of the container freight station to the destination or unloading port of the container freight station.

The above nine kinds of transfer methods, and further can be summarized into the following four ways:

(1) door to door: This mode of transport is characterized by the entire transport process, is completely container transport, and no goods transport, it is most suitable for Zhengxiang Jia, Zhengxiang then.

(2) the door to the station: This mode of transport is characterized by the door to the station for the container transport, from the station to the door is the transport of goods, it is suitable for Zhengxiang Jia,

(3) Station to the door: This mode of transport is characterized by the door to the station is the transport of goods from the station to the door is the container transport, it is suitable for Pinxiang, Zhengxiang then.

(4) station to the station: This mode of transport is characterized by, in addition to the middle of a container transport, both ends of the inland transport are cargo transport, it is suitable for Pinxiang, unpacking.

Definition of container

On the definition of containers, over the years the domestic and foreign experts and scholars there are some differences. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines the definition of a container as follows: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines a container as "a container is a transport facility that meets the following requirements:

(1) is durable and its strength is strong enough to be used repeatedly;

(2) specially designed to facilitate the delivery of goods, in one or more modes of transport in transit without the need for mid-facelift;

(3) a means for facilitating handling and handling, in particular for facilitating the transfer from one mode of transport to another;

(4) the design should be noted to facilitate the goods filled or unloading;

(5) the volume of 1 square meters or more than 1 square meters.

The term container does not include vehicles or traditional packaging.

At present, China, Japan, the United States, France and other countries around the world, are fully introduced the definition of the International Organization for Standardization. In addition to the definition of ISO, there are "container customs conventions" (CCC), "International Container Safety Convention (CSC), the British national standards and the North American Pacific Liner Association under the definition of the container, the content is basically the same. China's national standard GB1992-85 "container name terms", the reference to the above definition.

Standard for containers

In order to effectively carry out international container multimodal transport, it is necessary to strengthen the standardization of containers, should further improve the standardization of container work. Container standards according to the use of points, there are international standards, national standards, regional standards and company standards four.

1. International Standard Containers

Refers to an international standard container that is constructed and used in accordance with international standards established by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) 104 Technical Committee.

Container standardization has gone through a development process. ISO / TC104 Technical Committee Since its establishment in 1961, the International Standard for Container has been supplemented, added and modified several times. The current international standard is 13 of the first series, the width of which is the same (2438mm), the length There are four (12192mm, 9125mm, 6058mm, 2991mm), the height of four (2896mm, 2591mm, 2438mm, 2438mm). See table for details. Series 2 and Series 3 are downgraded to technical reports.

2. National standard container

Governments develop their own container standards in the light of international standards and take into account their own specific circumstances.

China's current national standard "container external dimensions and rated weight" (GB1413-85) in the various types of container external dimensions, limit deviation and rated weight, see table.

3. Regional standard container

Such container standards are developed by regional organizations in accordance with the special circumstances of the area, and such containers are only applicable to the area. Such as containers constructed in accordance with the container standards established by the European International Railway Consortium (VIC).

4. Company standard container

Some large container shipping companies, according to the specific circumstances and conditions of the company developed the container shipping company standards, such boxes are mainly used within the scope of the company's transportation. Such as the US land and sea company's 35ft container.

In addition, the world there are many non-standard containers. Non-standard containers are 45ft containers and 45ft containers of the President's Steamship Company. The non-standard containers are mainly 9ft and 9.5ft containers. The non-standard width containers have 8.2ft width containers and so on. As a result of the economic benefits of the current world, 20ft containers weighing a total of 24ft more and more, and generally welcomed.

The type of container

With the development of container transport, in order to meet the needs of loading different types of goods, and thus the emergence of different types of containers. These containers are not only different in appearance, but also the structure, strength, size, etc. are not the same. According to the use of different containers are divided into the following.

1. Dry Cargo Container

Also known as grocery container, which is a general purpose container for loading in addition to liquid goods, need to adjust the temperature of goods and special goods other than the general pieces of groceries. This container uses a very wide range, commonly used in 20ft and 40ft two, its structural features are often closed, usually in one or the side with a door.

2. Open Top Container

Also known as open containers, which is a rigid box top of the container, but there are folding roof support canvas, plastic cloth or plastic cloth made of the roof, the other components and cargo containers similar. The open top container is suitable for loading high cargo and heavy goods to be hoisted.

3. Bench & Platform Containers (Platform Based COntainer)

The benchtop container is no box top and side wall, and even some even the end wall is also removed and only the bottom plate and four corner pillars of the container.

There are many types of benchtop containers. Their main features are: in order to maintain its longitudinal strength, thicker bottom. The strength of the bottom of the box is larger than that of ordinary containers, and its internal height is lower than that of ordinary containers. In the lower side of the beam and the corner of the column with a ring, the goods can be loaded tight. Gantry containers are not watertight, fear of wet goods can not be shipped, suitable for loading different shapes of goods.

Bench-style containers can be divided into: open-side platform, full skeleton platform, a complete fixed end of the platform-style, no end only fixed angle column and floor of the bench-type containers.

A flat container is a container with only a floor and no upper structure. The container loading and unloading operation is convenient, suitable for loading long, heavy pieces.

4. Ventilated Containers

Ventilated containers are generally provided with ventilation holes in the side walls or end walls, suitable for loading goods that do not require refrigeration and require ventilation to prevent sweat, such as fruits, vegetables and so on. If the ventilation holes are closed, they can be used as grocery containers.

5. Refrigerated Containers (Reefer Container)

This is a container designed for the purpose of transporting frozen or low temperature cargoes that require a certain temperature. It is divided into a freezer with a built-in mechanical refrigerated containers and no freezer external mechanical refrigerated containers. Applicable to loading meat, fruit and other goods. Refrigerated containers cost higher, higher operating costs, the use of refrigeration equipment should pay attention to the technical status and the required temperature of the goods inside the box.

6. Bulk Container (Bulk Container)

Bulk containers in addition to the box door, the top of the box also has 2 to 3 loading port, suitable for loading powder or granular cargo. Use to keep the box clean and clean, both sides remain smooth, easy to unload the goods from the door.

7. Animal container (Pen COntainer)

This is a container for livestock. In order to achieve good ventilation, the wall is made of metal mesh, with a sweeping mouth and a drain at the bottom of the side wall, and a feeding device.

8. Tank Container

It is a kind of container for the sale of liquid goods, such as alcohol, oil and liquid chemicals and other goods. It consists of the tank and the box frame composed of two parts, loading the goods from the top of the tank loading hole into the discharge, the discharge hole from the discharge hole or from the top loading hole.

9. Car Containers

It is designed for the manufacture of small cars and the design and manufacture of containers. Its structure is characterized by no side wall, only with the frame and the bottom of the box, can be loaded one or two cars.

Because containers are often affected by various forces and the environment, so the container manufacturing materials to have sufficient rigidity and strength, should try to use light weight, high strength, durability, maintenance and low cost of materials, and materials It is necessary to low prices, but also easy to obtain.

At present, the world's widely used containers according to their main materials are classified as:

1. Steel containers

Its frame and box wall are made of steel. The biggest advantage is the high strength, structural stability, weldability and watertight, low price, easy to repair, easy to damage, the main drawback is the major, poor corrosion resistance.

2. Aluminum container

There are two kinds of aluminum containers: one for the aluminum frame; another frame only at both ends of the steel, the rest with aluminum. The main advantage is the light weight, not rusty silicon cloth look beautiful, flexible, and easy to deformation, the main drawback is the high cost, vulnerable to damage when the collision.

3. Stainless steel containers

General use of stainless steel tank containers. The main advantages of stainless steel containers is high strength, no rust, corrosion resistance is good, the disadvantage is the investment.

4. Glass steel containers

Fiberglass containers are made of steel frame on the glass composite panel. The main advantage is the heat insulation, corrosion resistance and chemical resistance are good, the strength of large (good, can withstand greater stress, easy to clean, easy to repair, large container volume; the main drawback is a large weight, Cost higher.

Characteristics of container transport

As the ordinary bulk cargo transport has long been the handling and transportation of low efficiency, long time, cargo damage, cargo serious, affecting the quality of freight, cargo handling complex, affecting the efficiency, so the owner, shipping companies and port economic benefits are extremely Adverse negative impact. In order to solve the problem of the use of ordinary cargo shipments,

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